Research Articles and Government Reports

A review of evidence, including research papers, government reports, and other health warnings documents, on the effectiveness of text and pictorial health warnings from 2006-present are listed below:

Click here to access health warnings documents from 1979-2005.

Improper Disclosure: Tobacco Packaging and Emission Labelling Regulations (Public Health – Hammond, White)
Australia
2012

Review of the EU Tobacco Products Directive (RIVM – National Institute for Public Health and Environment – Dutch with English Summary)
Netherlands
2012

Market Testing of Potential Health Warnings and Information Messages for Tobacco Product Packaging: Phase 2 Front and Back of Pack Graphic Health Warnings (Department of Health and Ageing)
Australia
2011

Market Testing of New Health Warnings and Information Messages for Tobacco Product Packaging: Phase 3 Refinement of Health Warnings (Department of Health and Ageing)
Australia
2011

Market Testing of New Health Warnings and Information Messages for Tobacco Product Packaging: Premium Cigars, Cigarillos / Little cigars and Roll your own (Department of Health and Ageing)
Australia
2011

Smokers’ Recall of Australian Graphic Cigarette Packet Warnings & Awareness of Associated Health Effects, 2005-2008 (BMC Pub Health – Miller et al.)
Australia
2011

Mass Media Campaigns Designed to Support New Pictorial Health Warnings on Cigarette Packets: Evidence of a Complementary Relationship (Tob Control – Brennan et al.)
Australia
2011

Health Warning Messages on Tobacco Products: A Review (Tob Control – Hammond)
Australia
2011

Canadians Welcome New Graphic Warnings on Cigarette Packages (Canadian Public Opinion Poll)
Canada
2011

The Appeal of Smokeless Tobacco Products Among Young Canadian Smokers: the Impact of Pictorial Health Warnings and Relative Risk Messages (Nicotine Tob Res – Callery et al.)
Canada
2011

Does the Effect Go Up in Smoke? A Randomized Controlled Trial of Pictorial Warnings on Cigarette Packaging (PEC – Schneider et al.)
European Union
2011

Are Current Tobacco Pictorial Warnings in India Effective? (Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev – Oswal et al.)
India
2011

Cigarette Package Health Warnings and Interest in Quitting Smoking – 14 Countries, 2008-2010 (CDC MMWR)
International
2011

Estimating the impact of pictorial health warnings and plain cigarette packaging. Evidence from experimental auctions among adult smokers in the United States (Health Policy – Thrasher et al.)
United States
2011

Final Rule on Required Warnings for Cigarette Packages and Advertisements (FDA Legal Document)
United States
2011

Plaintiffs’ Motion for Preliminary Injunction on the Required Warnings for Cigarette Packages and Advertisements (Legal Document)
United States
2011

Plaintiffs’ Motion for Summary Judgement and Permanent Injuction on the Required Warnings for Cigarette Packages and Advertisements (Legal Document)
United States
2011

Market Testing of Potential Health Warnings and Information Messages for Tobacco Product Packaging: Phase 1 Side of Pack Messages (Department of Health and Ageing)
Australia
2010

Market Testing of Potential Health Warnings and Information Messages for Tobacco Product Packaging: Phase 1 Side of Pack Messages (Government Report)
Australia
2010

Health Warning Labelling Practices on Narghile Waterpipe Tobacco Products and Related Accessories (Shisha, Hookah)
Bahrain
2010

Consumer Understanding of Cigarette Emission Labelling (Eur J Public Health – Gallopel-Morvan et al.)
France
2010

The Use of Visual Warnings in Social Marketing: The Case of Tobacco (J Bus Res – Gallopel-Morvan et al.)
France
2010

Consumer Understanding of Cigarette Emission Labelling (Eur J Public Health – Gallopel-Morvan et al.)
France
2010

Long-Term Benefit of Increasing the prominence of a Quitline Number on Cigarette Packaging: 3 years of Quitline Call Data (NZMJ – Wilson et al.)
New Zealand
2010

Cigarette Pack Warning Labels in Russia: How Graphic Should They Be? (Eur J Public Health – Wade et al.)
Russia
2010

Relevance of Health Warnings on Cigarette Packs: A Psycholinguistic Investigation (Health Comm – Gygax et al.)
Switzerland
2010

Evaluating the Impact of Picture Health Warnings on Cigarette Packets (Evaluation Report – Public Health Research Consortium)
United Kingdom
2010

Experimental Study of Graphic Cigarette Warning Labels – Final Results Report (FDA)
United States
2010

Experimental Study of Graphic Cigarette Warning Labels – Final Results Report and Appendices (FDA)
United States
2010

New Cigarette Warning Labels Not Likely to be a Game Changer (Government Report)
United States
2010

Proposed Rule on Required Warnings for Cigarette Packages and Advertisements (FDA Legal Document)
United States
2010

Understanding How Graphic Pictorial Warnings Work on Cigarette Packaging (J Pub Policy Mktg – Kees et al.)
United States
2010

Philip Morris versus Uruguay: Health Governance Challenged (Lancet – Lenchucha)
Uruguay
2010

Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Graphic Health Warnings on Tobacco Product Packaging 2008 Full Report (Government Report)
Australia
2009

Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Graphic Health Warnings on Tobacco Product Packaging 2008 Executive Summary (Government Report)
Australia
2009

Impact on the Australian Quitline of New Graphic Cigarette Pack Warnings Including the Quitline Number (Tob Control – Miller et al.)
Australia
2009

Response of Mass Media, Tobacco Industry and Smokers to the Introduction of Graphic Cigarette Pack Warnings in Australia (EJPH – Miller et al.)
Australia
2009

Recency Versus Repetition Priming Effects of Cigarette Warnings on Nonsmoking Teenagers: The Moderating Effects of Cigarette-Brand Familiarity (J Appl Soc Psychol – Sabanne et al.)
Australia
2009

Public Health Value of Disclosed Cigarette Ingredients and Emissions Data (Government Report)
Australia
2009

Economic Evaluation of Health Canada’s Proposal to Amend the Tobacco Product Information Regulations
Canada
2009

FCTC Article 11 Tobacco Warning Labels: Evidence and Recommendations from the ITC project (ITC Report)
Canada
2009

Testing of Health Warning Messages and Health Information Messages for Tobacco Products – Introduction and Executive Summary (Government Report)
Canada
2009

Testing of Health Warning Messages and Health Information Messages for Tobacco Products – Full Report (Government Report)
Canada
2009

Survey on Tobacco Analytic Report (Gallup Organisation – EC report)
European Union
2009

Health Warnings Report (German Cancer Research Centre Report)
Germany
2009

Smokers Responses Toward Cigarette Pack Warning Labels in Predicting Quit Intention, Stage of Change, and Self-efficacy (Nicotine Tob Res – Fathelrahman et al.)
Malaysia
2009

New Graphic Warnings Encourage Registrations With the Quitline (Tob Control – Li and Grigg)
New Zealand
2009

Do Graphic Health Warning Labels Have an Impact on Adolescents’ Smoking-related Beliefs and Behaviours? (Addiction – White et al.)
Australia
2008

Avoidance of Smoking: The Impact of Warning Labels in Brazil (Tob Control – Nascimento et al.)
Brazil
2008

Health Warnings on Tobacco Products Report (Government Report)
Brazil
2008

Adolescents’ Perceptions of Canadian Cigarette Package Warning Labels: Investigating the Effects of Message Framing (Health Commun – Goodall and Appiah)
Canada
2008

Consumer Research on the Size of Health Warning Messages (CDN Adults)
Canada
2008

Consumer Research on the Size of Health Warning Messages (CDN Youth)
Canada
2008

Health Canada Research on Warning Message Size 2008 (Highlights of Government Report)
Canada
2008

Potential Effectiveness of Health Warning Labels among Employees in Thailand (J Med Assoc Thai – Silpasuwan et al.)
Thailand
2008

Exploring the Effectiveness of Cigarette Warning Labels: Findings from the United States and United Kingdom Arms of the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey (ITC)
United Kingdom
2008

Effects of Including a Graphic Warning Label in Advertisements…Persuasion and Policy (J Appl Soc Psychol – Stark et al.)
United States
2008

Text and Graphic Warnings on Cigarette Packages ITC-4 (Am J Prev Med – Hammond et al.)
Australia
2007

Labelling and Packaging in Brazil (WHO report – Cavalcante)
Brazil
2007

Canada’s Tobacco Package Label or Warning System “Telling the Truth” about Tobacco Product Risks (WHO Report – Mahood)
Canada
2007

Smokers Reactions to Cigarette Package Warnings With Graphic Imagery and With Only Text Comparison Between Mex and Can (Salud Publ de Mexico – Thrasher et al.)
Canada
2007

Testing of Bilingual Health Warning Notices for Tobacco Industry Print Advertising (Government Report)
Canada
2007

Testing of Mock-ups of Health Warning Messages and Warning Notices on Tobacco Product Advertisements for Smokeless Tobacco (Government Report)
Canada
2007

Text and Graphic Warnings on Cigarette Packages ITC-4 (Am J Prev Med – Hammond et al.)
Canada
2007

Qualitative Testing of Toxic Emission Statements (Government Report)
Canada
2007

European Community Directive on Packaging and Labelling of Tobacco Products (WHO report – Joussens)
European Union
2007

Informing Smokers on Additives in Cigarettes a Randomized Trial (Patient Education and Counselling – Etter)
Belgium
2007

The Effectiveness of Text and Graphic Warnings on Cigarette Packages (Zeitschrift fur Sozialpsychologie – Petersen and Lieder)
Germany
2007

Estimating the Impact of Different Cigarette Package Warning Label Policies: The Auction Method (Addictive Behaviors – Thrasher et al.)
Mexico
2007

Colour Photos on Tobacco Packages Experience in Other Countries (Government Report)
Netherlands
2007

Visual Attention to Health Warnings in Tobacco Advertisements An Eye-Tracking Research Between Smokers and Nonsmokers (Studia Psychologica – Crespo et al.)
Spain
2007

Thailand Country Report on Labelling and Packaging (WHO Report – Chitanondh)
Thailand
2007

Consultation on the Introduction of Picture Warnings on Tobacco Packs (Government Report)
United Kingdom
2007

Text and Graphic Warnings on Cigarette Packages ITC-4 Study (Am J Prev Med – Hammond et al.)
United Kingdom
2007

UK Government to Put Graphic Warnings on Tobacco Products (BMJ – Davis)
United Kingdom
2007

Text and Graphic Warnings on Cigarette Packages ITC-4 Study (Am J Prev Med – Hammond et al.)
United States
2007

The Impact and Acceptability of Canadian-style Cigarette Warning Labels Among U.S. Smokers and Nonsmokers (Nicotine Tob Res – Peters et al.)
United States
2007

Worth More Than a Thousand Words Picture-Based Tobacco Warning Labels and Language Rights in the U.S. (Report – Browne et al.)
United States
2007

Worth More Than a Thousand Words Picture-Based Tobacco Warning Labels and Language Rights in the U.S. (Report – Browne et al.)
United States
2007

Worth More Than a Thousand Words Picture-Based Tobacco Warning Labels and Language Rights in the U.S. (Report – Browne et al.)
United States
2007

Effectiveness of Cigarette Warning Labels in Informing Smokers About the Risks of Smoking ITC-4 (Tob Control – Hammond et al.)
Australia
2006

Tobacco Industry Smoking Prevention Advertisements’ Impact on Youth Motivation for Smoking in the Future (SMQ – Donovan et al.)
Australia
2006

Relationship Between Constituent Labelling and Reporting (Jour of Public Health – O’Connor et al.)
Australia
2006

Socioeconomic and Country Variations in Knowledge of Health Risks of Tobacco Smoking and Toxic Constituents of Smoke: Results from the 2002 International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey (ITC)
Australia
2006

Canada a New Angle on Packs (Tob Control – Hammond)
Canada
2006

Effectiveness of Cigarette Warning Labels in Informing Smokers About The Risks of Smoking ITC-4 Study (Tob Control – Hammond et al.)
Canada
2006

Illustration-Based Health Information Messages Concept Testing (HC Government Report)
Canada
2006

Qualitative Testing of Health Warnings Messages (Government Report)
Canada
2006

Tobacco Denormalization and Industry Beliefs (Am J Prev Med – Hammond et al.)
Canada
2006

Relationship Between Constituent Labelling and Reporting of Tar Yields Among Smokers in Four Countries (Jour of Pub Health – O Connor et al.)
Canada
2006

Warning Messages in Cigarettes Packages a Comparative Linguistic-Discursive (Report – Sabaj)
Chile
2006

Showing Leads to Doing: Graphic Cigarette Warning Labels Are An Effective Public Health Policy (Eur J Public Health Editorial – Hammond)
European Union
2006

Response to Hammond et al. Showing Leads to Doing, But Doing What? The Need for Experimental Pilot-Testing (Eur J Public Health Editorial – Ruiter and Kok)
Netherlands
2006

Pictorial Health Warnings a Review of Research Evidence (Government Report)
New Zealand
2006

Effectiveness of Cigarette Warning Labels in Informing Smokers About the Risks of Smoking ITC-4 (Tob Control – Hammond et al.)
United Kingdom
2006

Tobacco Denormalization and Industry Beliefs Among Smokers from Four Countries (Am J Prev Med – Hammond et al.)
United Kingdom
2006

Relationship Between Constituent Labelling and Reporting of Tar Yields Among Smokers in Four Countries ITC-4 Study (Jour Publ Health – O Connor et al.)
United Kingdom
2006

Effectiveness of Cigarette Warning Labels in Informing Smokers About the Risks of Smoking ITC-4 (Tobacco Control – Hammond et al.)
United States
2006

Tobacco Denormalization and Industry Beliefs Among Smokers from Four Countries (Am J Prev Med – Hammond et al.)
United States
2006

Why is Such a Smart Person Like You Smoking? Using Self-Affirmation to Reduce Defensiveness to Cigarette Warning Labels (J Appl Biobehavior Research – Dillard et al.)
United States
2006

Tests of Graphic Visuals and Cigarette Package Warning Combinations: Implications for the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (J Public Policy Mark – Kees et al.)
United States
2006

Relationship Between Constituent Labelling and Reporting of Tar Yields Among Smokers in Four Countries (Jour Publ Health – O Connor et al.)
United States
2006